Crop rotation and tillage management options for sustainable intensification of rice-fallow agro-ecosystem in eastern India

Crop rotation and tillage management options for sustainable intensification of rice-fallow agro-ecosystem in eastern India

Currently, the rice-fallow cropping is targeted for intensification in South Asia. Rice-fallow a rain-fed mono-cropping system remain fallow after rice due to lack of irrigation facilities and poor socio-economic conditions of the farmers. Nevertheless, there is scope including winter crops ecological adapt to limited water conditions of the rice-fallow effective moisture conservation practices.

This study aims to identify winter-crops adaptable and productive in the rice-fallow conditions and to evaluate different treatment based practices for water conservation plant formation soil, grain yield, economy and sustainability parameters. Six formation of different plants and management of residues (CERM) practice, namely, zero-tillage featured live rice (ZTDSR), zero-processing transplant rice (ZTTPR), puddled transplanted rice (PTR), ZTDSR with rice residue retention (ZTDSRR +) , ZTTPR with rice residue retention (ZTTPRR +), PTR with rice residue retention (PTRR +) as the main treatment-plots and five of winter crops (beans, lentils, safflower, flaxseed, and mustard) for the treatment of sub-plots were evaluated in split-plot design.

Productivity nuts seeds (beans and lentils) Higher oilseed crops in conditions of rice-fallow sequences Beans> Lentils> safflower> mustard> flaxseed. Among the CERM practices, care ZTDSRR + and ZTDSR increase grain yield of all winter crops on treatment PTR, which is mainly due to the retention of soil moisture is higher for an extended period. increase in grain yield with soil conservation practices that are prevalent in safflower (190%) followed by lentils (93%) and beans (70%).

grain rice yield was higher (7-35%) under treatment followed by treatment ZTDSR PTR. processing conservation practices (ZTDSR, ZTTPR) reduce the use of energy (11-20%) and an increase in energy over conventional tillage practice (PTR), were higher in rice-safflower, rice-lentil and rice-bean rotation. a higher net return achieved in safflower and rice-rice-bean rotation with treatment ZTDSRR +. Predicted greenhouse gas emissions were markedly reduced in the treatment ZTDSR (30%) compared to treatment ZTTPR and PTR.

Therefore, this study suggests that the growing intensification of rice-fallow with the influx of winter crops such as beans, lentils, and safflower follow soil conservation practices (ZTDSRR + in particular) can be a strategic choice to achieve the productivity of the system of higher profits economy, and the use of energy efficiency with reduced emissions of greenhouse gases.

 Crop rotation and tillage management options for sustainable intensification of rice-fallow agro-ecosystem in eastern India
Crop rotation and tillage management options for sustainable intensification of rice-fallow agro-ecosystem in eastern India

[Intensification with high-dose chemotherapy for germ cell tumor, is still the subject of ongoing?]

More than 80% of patients with metastatic germ cell tumor cured with first line chemotherapy. Twenty to 30% of patients will relapse or refractory disease with very poor long-term prognosis. Most of them had metastatic germ cell tumors with a poor prognosis according to a collaborative group of international germ cell classification (IGCCCG).

The role of treatment intensification with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by stem cell rescue has not been proven yet in the first line setting compared with standard chemotherapy. HDCT role in the rescue of the first or second has not shown, many studies have been published in this situation with a lot of different regimens.

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OxiSelect 96-Well Comet Assay Kit

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CytoSelect 96-well Cell Transformation Assay

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CytoSelect 96-well Cell Transformation Assay

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Outside of clinical trials, HDCT remain an option in salvage therapy, depending on many factors including prognostics factors, previous therapy, the general conditions and consideration of referral centers for selecting eligible patients who can benefit most of these approaches. The results of TIGER international randomized trial will provide evidence-based information for HDCT strategy.

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